Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

papillomas and wartsThey are benign skin lesions. Its appearance is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

These growths spoil the appearance and undermine self-confidence. After all, they often occur in open places: face, neck, décolleté. Also, these outgrowths are injured by clothing and become inflamed. But the most unpleasant thing is when papillomas and condylomas appear on the genitals. They can not only spoil intimate life, but also provoke the development of a cancerous tumor.

The disease caused by the papilloma virus is called papillomatosis. This disease is common among sexually active people. According to some reports, 80% of adult women have its manifestations. 70% of them became sexually infected. In men, external signs of the disease are much less common: 1% have warts on the genitals, 30-40% have an asymptomatic course of the disease.

There are two periods in a person's life when the risk of infection is especially high. The first falls at the beginning of sexual life at 17-25 years, and the second at the peak of new partners at 35-40 years. Due to the peculiarities of the development of immunity, children and adolescents who are infected from their parents are very susceptible to this virus.

Older and obese people are more prone to the appearance of papillomas. Have these neoplasms appear in the folds of the skin and on the face.

Not always infection with a virus leads to the appearance of papillomas. The causative agent lives in the skin cells and if a person's immunity is strong, then he successfully copes with this infection. But if the body's defenses fall, warts or papillomas appear on the skin.

Many are interested in how papillomas and condylomas differ. In fact, these are manifestations of different forms of the same virus.

what warts look like

warts- They are benign neoplasms that are caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. Some scientists believe that warts are more likely to degenerate into cancerous tumors. They are found in the genital area and anus (anus), but can sometimes appear near the mouth. Warts often appear in the form of a rash that consists of many elements. They have an unpleasant property to merge and reach large sizes. On the mucous membrane of the genital organs, they grow in the form of a cock's comb.

Warts are red or dirty brown, but on the genitals they are lighter. To the touch they are softer and more tender than papillomas. In structure, they resemble many villi that have grown together at the base.

Warts are more contagious and tend to reappear after treatment. They come in three varieties: genital, flat, and intraepithelial warts. These formations must be eliminated. At the same time, doctors record all cases of condylomatosis.

papillomas on the human body

papillomas- These are benign neoplasms caused by less dangerous varieties of human papillomavirus, most often types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10. The risk of developing an oncological tumor in this case is low, papillomas are more of a defect cosmetic than a serious problem. They are located in different parts of the skin: on the eyelids, in the mouth and on the lips, on the chest and neck, armpits. But they can also be on the genitals.

Papillomas are lighter than warts: pink, white, pearl or light brown. As a rule, they appear one by one, they do not merge with each other. They rarely exceed 1 cm in height. The appearance of papillomas is also different: they are bumpy, rounded formations on a stem. They look like cauliflower and are firm to the touch.

Papillomas respond best to treatment and may go away on their own over time. This happens in 20% of cases.

So, let's summarize. Papillomas are a less dangerous form of manifestation.papilloma virusperson. But warts must be removed. But it is difficult to independently distinguish condyloma from papilloma, because each person has his own disease. Therefore, in any case, consult a doctor for advice.

skin papillomas

Causes of papillomas

human papilloma virus in the body

Papilloma is a round benign tumor on a thin stem, resembling a papilla in shape. But this is not the disease itself, but its consequences. Papillomas can be compared to fungi. Although we see them on the surface, the mycelium has cast its nets underground. That is the case with papillomas, everything is exactly the same.

The cause of this infectious disease is the human papillomavirus (HPV). It comes into contact with the skin and begins to multiply in its surface layer - the squamous epithelium. The virus, like a mycelium, quietly settles in the thickness of the skin. But when immunity falls and a sufficient amount of the pathogen accumulates, it changes the nuclei of epithelial cells. And because of this, they begin to produce "wrong" offspring. Mutated skin cells of the virus actively grow and provoke the appearance of papilloma.

Ways of transmission and methods of infection.

  1. through sexual contact.The thin mucous membrane of the genital organs is very susceptible to the virus. If your partner has papillomas on the genitals, the probability of infection is almost 100%. Using a condom can reduce the risk. But if the outgrowths are located in an unprotected place (for example, the perineum), then in this case an infection will occur. It should be remembered that any type of sexual contact and even kissing is dangerous with such a partner.
  2. From mother to child during childbirth.This happens when the future mother has warts on the internal or external genitalia. During childbirth, the child swallows the virus and develops papillomas in the larynx. This form of the disease is difficult to treat.
  3. Via household items. Especially often the infection occurs through towels, washcloths, razors, epilators. In this way, the children of sick parents become infected.
  4. Infection in public places.Bathhouses, swimming pools, and gym locker rooms can be dangerous. The virus that leaves a sick person on wet surfaces does not die. It causes infection if the infection has reached the broken skin. But the probability of this is not great.
  5. Autoinfection. This means that one papilloma can provoke the appearance of a dozen more neoplasms. Autoinfection occurs during shaving or waxing, rubbing on clothing.

Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

diagnosis of papillomas in humans

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common on the planet. The causative agent of the disease itself is a double strand of DNA with genetic information, surrounded by a protective protein shell. There are more than 100 varieties of it. Of these, 40 cause disease in humans. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease has different manifestations: warts, pointed, flat or intradermal papillomas, and cancer of the genital organs.

After infection, the virus penetrates into the nuclei of skin cells and begins to multiply there. This continues for about 3-12 months. This period is called the incubation period - the virus is already in the body, but external manifestations are still invisible.

Then, if the immune system is weakened, microscopic papillae made up of various cells appear on the surface of the skin. Gradually, they increase and can grow up to 10 centimeters. If the immune system is strong, then papillomatosis does not manifest itself at all or self-healing occurs, which can occur in young people under 25 years of age, after childbirth, or when a chronic disease has regressed.

There are several types of papillomavirus:

  1. Non-oncogenic papillomavirus (HPV 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 63).This group of viruses that do not cause rebirth in skin cells. HPV types 1, 2, 4, and 63 often cause plantar and common warts on the fingers. 3 and 10 cause flat warts, which used to be considered a severe form of the disease. Indeed, in this way the body tries to limit the spread of the virus. It appears to create a "sarcophagus" around the affected cells.
  2. Oncogenic papillomavirus of low oncogenic risk (HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44).These types of viruses can eventually cause cancer, but the risk of such disease development is not very high. The cells of the squamous epithelium of the skin mutate only if the body is affected by carcinogenic factors: smoking, poor ecology, prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives. Viruses of types 6 and 11 often provoke the development of papillomas in the larynx and genital warts on the genitals.
  3. High-risk oncogenic papillomavirus (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68)Infection with these viruses often leads to cancer, especially tumors of the cervix and larynx. They also cause neoplasia, a precancerous condition that manifests itself in a change in the structure of uterine cells. The most dangerous of this group is HPV 16. This type of virus causes 50% of cancer cases. Strain 18 is also quite aggressive and often causes cervical swelling. Types 31 and 35 cause Bowenoid papulosis in men and women, which can cause cancer of the penis and cervix. HPV types 51 and 56 are considered the least carcinogenic of the entire group, are easier to treat, and can be excreted from the body on their own.

Prognosis of the course of the disease.

The most unfavorable prognosis for type 18 virus. The disease can turn into cancer in 3-5 years, which quickly dissolves metastases in other organs. The tumor behaves aggressively and grows deep into the genital organs. The prognosis for type 16 infection is somewhat better, but the probability of tumor recurrence after treatment is high.

The prognosis for types 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 58, 59 of the virus is unfavorable. After 2-3 years after treatment, the disease manifests itself again, often becoming malignant. Cancers caused by this type of virus have high mortality rates.

Such unfavorable forecasts should alert a person if he finds even a small growth on the skin. It is necessary to consult a dermatologist or gynecologist who can accurately diagnose.
You can determine the type of human papillomavirus in laboratories. To do this, take a smear or scraping from the skin area where there are growths. The DNA of the virus is then determined in the laboratory. Types of papillomaviruses differ from each other in the structure of the sections of the DNA chain. It helps to recognize the differences.polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Symptoms and what do papillomas look like on the skin?

Papillomas on the face (photo)

papillomas in the eye area

These benign growths are often found in places where the skin is thinnest: near the eyes, around the nose and mouth. And in men on the chin in the shaving area. The growths may appear alone or in groups. In appearance, these are rounded growths similar to elongated papillae or cauliflower. Papillomas on the face are pink or brown.
First, a small bump, similar to a pimple, appears on the surface of the skin. Gradually, it increases in size, grows up and to the sides. In diameter, the papilloma reaches up to 3 cm, its base is narrower, and the cap is round and tuberous.

If in women papilloma on the face mainly causes aesthetic problems, then in men it is more difficult. The growths are constantly damaged during shaving and this can cause serious inflammation.

A person becomes infected through bodily contact with a sick person. This can be hugs, sexual contact or, for example, through shared towels. From the moment of infection to the appearance of papillomas on the face, it can take from 3 months to a year. Often, growths are formed on the skin after infections, severe stress, hypothermia, during pregnancy, when immunity falls.

Papillomas on the skin of the neck and body (photo)

papillomas on the skin of the neck

Papillomas can appear anywhere on the body. Its location depends on the gender, the route of infection and the type of HPV. Some varieties of the virus provoke the appearance of warts mainly on the genitals, others on the body. In men, papillomas most often appear under the armpits, on the sides of the body, and on the neck. In women, they occur on the breasts, under the breasts, on the nipples, and in the armpits. But growths can also occur on other parts of the body: on the abdomen, back, hips.

Papillomas on the body occur on average 3 months after infection. But the virus can nest in the skin for several years, manifesting itself only after the fall of the body's immune defenses.

Although the papilloma on the skin of the neck and body is small, it can be confused with goosebumps. But little by little it grows and begins to bring a lot of inconvenience: it sticks to clothes, swells, bleeds. In this case, you can not postpone the visit to the doctor.

Papillomas on the skin of the hands (photo)

papillomas on the hands

Papillomas or common warts usually appear on the skin of the hands, which are caused by HPV types 3 and 10. They are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person and usually grow in places where there were small lesions on the skin, especially near the nails. . From infection to the appearance of warts, it takes between 2 and 6 months.

Papillomas on the hands have their own characteristics. They are flatter and do not sit on a narrow leg, but directly on the skin. They are small rounded yellowish formations with an irregular keratinizing surface. To the touch they are dense and rough. Neighboring elements often merge and can hit a large surface area. They are often found on the fingers, palms, and in children and on the knees. This is due to the fact that babies crawl without clothes. In children, warts appear more often than in adults, because their skin is thinner and more susceptible to the virus.

Papillomas on the skin of the feet (photo)

papillomas on the skin of the feet

These benign growths on the soles of the feet are sometimes called thorns. They cause pain and burning when walking and can bring a lot of trouble to a person.

The disease is caused by the human papillomavirus, or rather its types 1, 2 and 4. 4-6 weeks after infection, a soft, light bump appears on the skin. Little by little, it increases in size and turns yellow. Its surface becomes heterogeneous, rough or hairy. The growth surrounds the protruding edge. In 30% of cases, papillomas on the sole disappear on their own. Self-healing occurs mainly in young people with strong immunity.
Sometimes, plantar papillomas are confused with calluses that appear from pressing the feet for a long time with shoes. But the skin pattern remains on the callus, and the surface of the plantar wart consists of separate rounded elements.

Removal of skin papillomas.

laser papilloma removal

Papillomas are removed when they spoil the appearance, they are often injured, inflamed, or tend to degenerate into a cancerous tumor. The main treatment for papillomas is their removal. But so that warts never bother you again, you need to undergo treatment:

  • Immunostimulant drugs to strengthen the body's defenses.
  • Antivirals. They do not destroy the causative agent of the disease, but only restrict its growth.
  • cytotoxic drugs. These drugs cause the death of cells that form papillomas and warts. They are used when the rash is very common and the larynx and other internal organs are affected. These medications can cause serious side effects.

But the only effective means is mechanical removal. Modern medicine offers several ways to do it. Let's take a look at its features.

Surgical removal of papillomas.

The operation is performed if the size of the papilloma is more than 1 cm or if there is a suspicion that cancer cells are present in the formation. Often the doctor removes and some healthy tissue. This is necessary so that the outgrowth does not appear again. After removal, a suture is applied. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and lasts between 10 and 15 minutes. In this case, the patient does not experience pain.

In some cases, when the papilloma has a thin stem, it is cut with surgical scissors. Then the vessel that fed her blood is sealed (coagulated) using an electrocoagulator. The area is treated with an antiseptic.

Disadvantages of the method: a fairly large area of skin is removed. It takes a long time to heal, after the operation scars and scars may appear.

Cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen.

cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen

Another name for this method is cryodestruction, that is, destruction by cold. After the tumor (papilloma) has been examined and the analysis has shown that it is benign and there are no altered cells in it, then the operation can proceed.

The doctor touches the papilloma with a swab dipped in liquid nitrogen or with a special mouthpiece. The temperature of nitrogen is -196 degrees. The exposure time is 5-20 seconds. The duration of cauterization depends on the size of the papilloma. Upon contact with liquid nitrogen, the water in the cells freezes, turns into ice, and its crystals destroy the papillomas.

The procedure is painless, but if the skin in this place is very sensitive, it is anesthetized with an injection of novocaine into the sore spot. After nitrogen treatment, the skin turns white, and a small bubble filled with a transparent or pink liquid gradually forms in this place. The surrounding skin is red and swollen. At this stage, a person may experience discomfort - burning and tingling. But they go slowly.

After the procedure, the doctor recommends treating the skin with boric alcohol or potassium permanganate solution 2 times a day for a week. The ointment prevents infection, increases local immunity and reduces the risk of recurrence of papilloma.

The bubble bursts after 3-4 days and turns into a scab that protects the wound from damage. Gradually, the top layer disappears and healthy, rosy skin remains underneath.

Removal with liquid nitrogen is recommended if papillomas are located on the eyelids or small joints. Cryodestruction is also used to remove growths on the genitals.

The disadvantage of the method: if the doctor slightly freezes the diseased area of the skin, the papilloma may reappear. Freezing too much damages healthy tissue and causes scarring.

Removal of papillomas by laser.

Before removal, an analysis is carried out to exclude the presence of cancer cells. The place where the wart or papilloma is located is anesthetized with a lidocaine spray. The patient is asked to wear protective glasses.

A beam of laser rays is directed at the neoplasm. A papilloma is affected no more than a minute. The laser evaporates the water in the diseased cells, they shrink and turn into a scab. After half an hour, the skin around it becomes red and swollen, this is a normal reaction that will pass in a few days.

The bark falls off on its own in 5-7 days. In its place is soft pink skin. Gradually, its color evens out, and there is no trace of papilloma at the site of the defect. It will take about 2 weeks for complete healing. During this period, you need to protect the skin from direct sunlight. Otherwise, a dark brown spot will appear at the site of the papilloma.

Laser cauterization of papillomas prevents infection of the wound with microorganisms and seals the vessels. Therefore, bleeding does not occur during and after surgery.

It is not recommended to moisten and steam the crust that has formed at the site of papilloma for 3 days. Also, until complete healing, you can not apply decorative cosmetics. This will prevent the appearance of scars. Treat this area with a solution of potassium permanganate or a healing ointment with an antibiotic, as recommended by a doctor.
With the help of a laser, papillomas on the arms, legs, face and genitals are removed.

The disadvantage of the method: when removing large papillomas with a laser, scars may remain. Cryodestruction can lead to the fact that the papilloma will decrease in height, but will grow in width

Electrocoagulation of papillomas.

This is the removal of neoplasms using electric current. A special electrocoagulator allows you to dry the narrow base of the papilloma or the entire wart. After that, the growth is easily separated from the skin. Wound bleeding does not occur because the vessels are sealed with current.

Recovery will take 7-10 days. At this time, it is recommended to treat the crusts with alcohol tincture of calendula 2 times a day. This will help prevent infection. After the bark falls off, a thin, pink skin is found under it, which should be protected from injury and direct sunlight.

The main advantage of this method is that the papilloma can be sent for examination by an oncologist.
Disadvantages of the method. If it is not enough to treat the area where the papilloma was, then after a while it can grow again. Removal in sensitive areas (genitals) can be painful.

What is the best way to remove papilloma on the face and body?

Removal of papillomas on the face

Papillomas on the face are a significant lack of appearance. Therefore, its removal is a procedure that is carried out very frequently. The choice of method depends on the size of the accumulation and its structure.

Removal of papillomas with liquid nitrogen is widespread in many clinics and beauty salons. After this, in most cases, there are no scars on the skin.

Laser removal is also very popular. The specialist accurately doses the strength of the laser. This helps "evaporate" the papilloma cells, but does not affect healthy tissue. It is considered the safest procedure, because the laser destroys the microbes that cause inflammation.

Electrocoagulation and traditional scalpel removal are more painful, and wounds after such operations heal longer.

If you prefer to be treated with natural remedies, then try to remove the defect on the face with the help of wormwood, celandine or calendula juice. To do this, moisten the papilloma several times a day with the juice that protrudes from the stem of the plant.

Removal of papillomas on the eyelid.

The skin on the eyelids is very thin and often develops a rash of growths. Removal of papillomas on the eyelid requires special precision. Therefore, do not go to beauty salons randomly. It is better to entrust this work to a dermatologist.

Best results are achieved by removal with liquid nitrogen or laser. These methods allow you to perform the procedure without blood and avoid infection of the wound with bacteria.

Removal of papillomas on the neck

Papillomas in this area are often injured by clothing or jewelry, they become inflamed. To prevent infection, doctors recommend removing them.

The most common method is cauterization of outgrowths with a laser beam. The operation lasts no more than 1 minute for 1 growth. This method cannot completely protect against the reappearance of papillomas, but it still reduces the risk.

Electrocoagulation is also used. A thin instrument, through which a high-frequency current passes, heats the tissues and kills the virus. After such a procedure, the papilloma can be sent for research.

Radio wave surgery also has an excellent effect. A thin metal loop is applied to the skin around the papilloma. She creates radio waves. Under its action, the skin cells "dry out" and the growth disappears. According to the principle of operation, the method is similar to laser removal.

Removal of papilloma on the body

removal of papilloma on the body

It is necessary to remove papillomas on the body when there are a lot of them, they grow and merge with each other, become inflamed and cause discomfort. You can get rid of them with the help of a traditional operation. Large papillomas are cut with a scalpel. At the same time, an area of healthy skin is also captured to remove all cells affected by the virus. But this method is used when there is a suspicion that cancer cells have appeared.

A more modern and gentle method is cryodestruction. Liquid nitrogen quickly freezes the papilloma and it disappears. The remaining bark should be treated 2 times a day with an alcohol tincture of calendula and protected from water.

If possible, you can remove the papilloma with a laser or using an electrocoagulator.
After the removal of papillomas, the patient can go home almost immediately. But the patient still needs to undergo antiviral treatment and take care of strengthening the immune system.